Copyright 1997 CENTRE FOR COMPUTER-AIDED EGYPTOLOGICAL RESEARCH

http://www.ccer.ggl.ruu.nl/codage/codage.htm

"Manuel de Codage"

A standard system for the computer-encoding of Egyptian transliteration and hieroglyphic texts

by Hans van den Berg


Under Construction



Introduction

The hieroglyphic writing is a purely pictorial writing consisting of pictures of things. From 3000 years of Pharaonic culture many thousands of drawings are known, many of which often differ from each other in only the smallest detail. In hieroglyphic texts, these drawings are not only simply arranged in sequential order, but also grouped on top of and next to each other. This rather complicates matters trying to register and reproduce hieroglyphic texts using a computer.


When the first computers were introduced in Egyptology in the late 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, the graphical capacity of the machines was still in its infancy. Early attempts to register the hieroglyphic pictorial writing on computer therefore chose an encoding system to do this, using alphanumeric codes to represent or replace the graphics. To prevent many people from reinventing the wheel, during the first "Table Ronde Informatique et Egyptologie" in 1984 a committee was charged with the task to develop a uniform system for the encoding of hieroglyphic texts on computer. The resulting Manual for the Encoding of Hieroglyphic Texts for Computer-input (Jan Buurman, Nicolas Grimal, Jochen Hallof, Michael Hainsworth and Dirk van der Plas, Informatique et Egyptologie 2, Paris 1988), simply called Manuel de Codage, presents an easy to use and intuitive way of encoding hieroglyphic writing as well as the abbreviated hieroglyphic transcription (transliteration). The encoding system of the Manuel de Codage has since been adopted by international Egyptology as the official common standard for registering hieroglyphic texts on computer.


Encoding Egyptian transliteration

Hieroglyphic transcription is mostly used by Egyptologists as a transliteration of the hieroglyphic writing into 'latin' writing, using characters from our own latin alphabet differentiated by diacritical points for sounds unknown to modern western languages. The use of these characters with diacritical marks proved a problem to early computers. Therefore the Manuel de Codage first of all offers a way of translating Egyptian transliteration to the normal computer keyboard, using the easily accessible range of key-values from "a" to "z" and "A" to "Z" without extended characters.

According to the Manuel de Codage, the Egyptian "alphabet" is transcribed to computer in the following way:

Thus, the hieroglyphic transcription is written "anx", as "wDA", as "Dd", as "aHa", as "STyt" and as "Smsw".

An Egyptian transliteration font based on this encoding is available in TrueType format from the CCER FTP-Corner.

How this transcription system is used as a basis for the phonetic encoding of hieroglyphs is described in the following paragraph.


Encoding hieroglyphic texts

Being graphic images and numbering more than 5000 (when all periods are taken into account), hieroglyphs are rather difficult to process on a computer. They simply don't fit on the standard type of keyboard, nor do they fit in a single character set. To be able to process them using a computer, it is therefore best to refer to them using labels (i.e. synonyms). Such labels can be a numerical codes referring to the position of a sign within a character set, or even strings or names. The encoding system of the Manuel de Codage offers two ways of recording the hieroglyphic signs: by means of the so-called Gardiner sign list numbers and by the known phonetic values of the signs. Moreover, the encoding system of also offers ways for recording the layout of a hieroglyphic text, i.e. the positioning of the hieroglyphs relative to each other, text anomalies, shading (damaged parts), cartouches, hwt-enclosures, Serekhs, and more.


Gardiner codes

The first way of encoding hieroglyphic signs is based on an Egyptological standard that was presented in 1927 by A.H. Gardiner in his Egyptian Grammar. This book includes an elaborate list of more than 800 hieroglyphic signs most commonly found in Middle Egyptian texts, subdivided into convenient categories like "Mammals", "Birds", "Trees and Plants", etcetera. Each category is labelled by a letter of the alphabet:

A Man and his occupations
B Woman and her occupations
C Anthropomorphic Deities
D Parts of the Human Body
E Mammals
F Parts of Mammals
G Birds
H Parts of Birds
I Amphibious Animals, Reptiles, etc.
K Fishes and Parts of Fishestions
L Invertebrata and Lesser Animals
M Trees and Plants
N Sky, Earth, Water
O Buildings and Parts of Buildings
P Ships and Parts of Ships
Q Domestic and Funerary Furniture
R Temple Furniture and Sacret Emblems
S Crowns, Dress, Staves, etc.
T Warfare, Hunting, Butchery
U Agriculture, Crafts and Professions
V Rope, Fibre, Baskets, Bags, etc.
W Vessels of Stone and Earthenware
X Loaves and Cakes
Y Writing, Games, Music
Z Strokes, Geometrical Figures, etc.
Aa Unclassified

Within each category, the signs are numbered sequentially. For instance, the category P contains 11 signs that are numbered in the following way:

P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11

The Gardiner sign list has since long become a standard in Egyptology, which makes it especially suited to serve as a basis for the computer-encoding of hieroglyphs. To make Egyptologists feel as comfortable as possible, the encoding system of the Manuel de Codage has therefore adapted the Gardiner sign list numbers as the most important way of labelling hieroglyphs.

This means that is simply encoded as A6, as M20 and as Y1.

Because the Gardiner list only covers the most common signs found in Middle Egyptian Texts, about 800 signs, the original edition of the Manuel de Codage also included a preliminary list of some additional 4000 signs from all other periods of the hieroglyphic writing. The definitive list of more than 4700 signs was published in the book Hieroglyphica (Jochen Hallof, Nicolas Grimal, Dirk van der Plas, PIREI 1, Utrecht/Paris 1993).


Phonetic codes

The second way of encoding hieroglyphic signs offered by the Manuel de Codage is by the signs' phonetic values. Though in the hieroglyphic writing many signs can have many different phonetic values (depending on the reading of the words they appear in), and many signs can have the same phonetic value, for computer purposes only a limited number of them can be used. For instance, it is not possible to use the phonetic value di as reference to both and . The computer wouldn't know how to distinguish between the two. Consequently, a certain phonetic value can only point to one sign. According to the Manuel de Codage, di only refers to X8.

The other way around, however, single signs can well have more than one phonetic value. For instance, X8 can be referred to by both di and rdi, that is, provided rdi doesn't point to any other sign.

Since most people experienced in reading hieroglyphic texts will know many signs by their phonetic use in Egyptian, using mostly phonetic values instead of sign list numbers will considerably facilitate the process of encoding. After all, i ii m Htp is a far more readable code for than M1 M18 G17 R4.

At the same time one has to bear in mind that not all signs can be encoded using phonetic values. Though a sign like can be encoded either L1 or xpr, a sign like has no phonetic value and can only be encoded A1. A list of hieroglyphic signs and their possible phonetic values can be found in Appendix B, while appendix C provides a list the other way around.

Summarizing, hieroglyphic signs can be encoded either by their Gardiner sign list number or by a phonetic value. A single sign may carry various phonetic values, as long as each phonetic value only points to one sign.


Codes for arranging hieroglyphs in groups

Hieroglyphic text basically consists of rows of signs arranged in horizontal lines or vertical columns. Within a row the signs are placed individually or grouped, upper having precedence over lower. The encoding system treats hieroglyphic text no different from the way the Ancient Egyptians and modern Egyptologists regarded their reading. So, is encoded in the order , just like it is read. However, apart from listing the signs by their sign list number or phonetic value in the order they appear, additional codes are needed to note their positioning relative to each other.

The following codes are basic for the arrangement of single signs and groups of signs:

- hieroglyphic sign separator i-ii-m-Htp
: subordination of signs Y1:Z2
* juxtaposition within a group p*t:pt
( ) cluster positioning within a group p*(t:Z4):pt

To be continued...


Under Construction


The following is a temporary continuation of the text extracted from the Glyph for Windows manual:

Hieroglyphic groups like , and where signs are placed next to and on top of each other can be constructed using the codes ":" (subdivision) and "*" (juxtaposition).

The code ":" is used to place one sign (or sign group) over another. is achieved by the simple code x:r (or Aa1:D21). More signs can be vertically placed within a group by adding more ":"-statements; n:t:f gives .

The code "*" is used to put two (or more) signs next to each other in a group. is achieved by p*t:pt, while should be encoded S:N23*Z1. Please note the fact that the code p*t:pt does not result in , because like in mathematics "*" has precedence over ":". In first p is put next to t, and only then they are put over pt.

It is of course possible to put more than two signs next to each other in a group, as is demonstrated by N5:10*10*10 and Htp:t*p*t .

There can be several combinations of ":" and "*" within a single group, as is demonstrated by n:xt:x*t , having ":" twice and one "*". Groups can have up to 4 horizontal layers (i.e. allowing three times ":") in WinGlyph.

PLACING GROUPS WITHIN GROUPS

Though ":" and "*" are quite sufficient for constructing the most common and simple groups, one may be faced with a group like , where there is actually the group nested inside the group. Such nested subgroups can only be achieved using the brackets "(" and ")". Thus, should be encoded p*(t:Z4):pt. Like in mathematics, the group placed between the brackets has precedence over ":" and "*". The code p*t:Z4:pt without the brackets would have the wrong result .

The use of the brackets for subgroups seldom applies to texts in lines and will mostly be needed for encoding columned texts (see below).

THE END-OF-LINE MARKER "!"

A block of hieroglyphic text can be divided into separate lines (or columns) using the end-of-line marker "!", which serves as physical Hard Return. It has to be placed at the point where the line should end and a jump to the next line should follow. For instance,

was encoded

z:A1*Z1-p-Z7-wn:n-i-n:p*Z7-E15-x:D43-Z7-Y1:n-A1-r:n-f-!
sxt-t:Z4-A1-p*Z7:n-sxt-t:N23-H-mA-A-t-U32-N33:Z2-niwt-i-s-t-!
wn:n-N42:t-B1:f-U7-r:t-A2-B1-r:n-s-!

It is important to note that in this code the end-of-line marker "!" each time is preceded by a "-" (dash). The end-of-line marker should never directly follow a hieroglyphic sign code, but should always be separated from it by either a dash (thus forming "-!"), or a single or double space (see CODES FOR GRAMMATICAL AND LEXICAL USE).

When a hard return is used in the middle of a code line this will not at all affect the formatting of the hieroglyphic output. The example code could just as well have been entered like

z:A1*Z1-p-Z7-wn:n-i-n:p*Z7-E15-x:D43-
Z7-Y1:n-A1-r:n-f-!
sxt-t:Z4-A1-p*Z7:n-sxt-t:N23-H-mA-A-t-
U32-N33:Z2-niwt-i-s-t-!
wn:n-N42:t-B1:f-U7-r:t-A2-B1-r:n-s-!

The output would be the same. Only the end-of-line marker makes the hieroglyphic text jump to a new line.

Applying hard returns in one's code is very useful to keep the code lines from becoming too long and running out of the window.

THE END-OF-PAGE MARKER "!!"

WinGlyph supports the encoding, display and printing of multiple hieroglyphic pages within one code file. The end-of-page marker "!!" can be used to indicate a page break . Its use is much the same as with the end-of-line marker "!". The "!!"-code should be placed at the end of the last line of the page, at the point where the page should end and a new page should begin. A code like

z:A1*Z1-p-Z7-wn:n-i-n:p*Z7-E15-x:D43-
Z7-Y1:n-A1-r:n-f-!
sxt-t:Z4-A1-p*Z7:n-sxt-t:N23-H-mA-A-t-
U32-N33:Z2-niwt-i-s-t-!!
wn:n-N42:t-B1:f-U7-r:t-A2-B1-r:n-s-!

would result in being the last word on the page and starting on the next page. Please note the fact that the end-of-page marker is also preceded by a "-" (dash), giving the combination "-!!".

CARTOUCHES, ETC.

For royal name enclosures, the encoding system supports the use of cartouches, Serekhs, walled enclosures and Hwt-signs. In the current version, WinGlyph only supports cartouches and and Hwt-signs.

The royal name code should be placed between two special codes "<" and ">", the first one for starting and the second one for closing the cartouche shape. To these codes a special code should be added indicating the kind of royal name needed:

normal cartouche

< normal beginning > normal end

<1 normal beginning 2> normal end

<2 inversed beginning 1> inversed end

Examples:

<-i-mn:n-m-HAt:t-> (normal cartouche)

<1-i-mn:n-m-HAt:t-2> (normal cartouche)

<2-i-mn:n-m-HAt:t-1> (inversed cartouche)

Hwt-shape

<h1 Hwt-beginning type 1:

<h2 Hwt-beginning type 2:

<h3 Hwt-beginning type 3:

h1> Hwt-ending type 1:

h2> Hwt-ending type 2:

h3> Hwt-ending type 3:

Examples:

<h1-F35-h2> and <h1-F35-h3> (note the difference!)

<h2-F35-h1> and <h3-F35-h1> (note the difference!)

In addition, so-called nul-beginnings and endings (<0, <h0, 0> and h0>) are available for those cases where a royal name enclosure overruns the length of a line.

RED-COLORED TEXTS

Black is the default color for hieroglyphic text in WinGlyph, but there are of course instances where one also needs red colored hieroglyphs, for instance with Coffin Texts or New Kingdom funerary papyri. There are two special codes available to note a switch in color of the hieroglyphic text from black to red and vice versa.

A switch to the red color is indicated with "$r" and a switch (back) to black with "$b". The color code is entered in between the hieroglyphic codes as if it were a sign itself and is therefore always preceded and followed by either a "-" (dash) or " " (space). For instance,

$r-x:p-xpr:r-m-b-i-k-G6-n:T:r-nTr-$b-i-A1-G5-A40-m-
D40-D54-r-k-r-Dd-d-w-niwt

causes to appear in red and to appear in black.

SHADING

Shading is used to indicate that a text is damaged. This damage can have resulted in lacunae in the text (f.i. ) or damaged--but recognizable-- hieroglyphs (f.i. ). In code such damages can be entered in different ways.

If the damage concerns a single sign (not in a group) the shading can be noted by placing the code "#" right after the sign code: is encoded A#.

If only part of the sign is damaged one can attach to the "#"-code the numbers of the sign quadrants to be shaded. For shading each sign is subdivided into 4 quadrants, their numbers being ordered as follows:

If one wants only quadrant 1 to be shaded the code would be A#1 , only quadrant 2 would be A#2 , etcetera. Of course combinations of quadrant numbers are possible: A#12 , A#13 , A#123 , etcetera. Logically, A#1234 equals A# .

If the damage covers more than one sign or group the passage to be shaded should be set between the codes "#b" (shading beginning) and "#e" (shading end):

is encoded

ir:n-A1-n:A1-N36-aHa-#b-a:t-pr-t-w-#e-s-Ax-x-ti-i

Note the fact that the shading codes are entered in between the hieroglyphic codes as if they were signs themselves and are therefore always preceded and followed by either a "-" (dash) or " " (space).

In case hieroglyphs are completely illegible or lost (f.i. , or ) one can use quarter, half and full quadrant shading codes in their place. The code "/" gives a quarter shaded quadrant , "h/" gives a horizontal half shaded quadrant , "v/" gives a vertical half shaded quadrant and "//" gives a full quadrant . These codes are used in place of the lost signs: is encoded /*t:pt, is encoded b-h/:t-Y7 and is encoded b-a-H-//-mw.

One could use a sequence of "//"-codes to indicate a larger destroyed part. The code r:n-//-//-A1 gives , where one actually notes that 2 hieroglyphic signs are lost (twice a full shaded quadrant). This is quite different from r:n-#b-..-..-#e-A1 (see above) where one sees that signs were lost but actually no number is given. Consequently, r:n-h/:/*/-v/-v/-A1 shows that there are still visible traces of the signs lost (one horizontal sign with two small signs beneath followed by two vertical signs) giving much more information than with .

MIRRORING SIGNS

Sometimes signs need to be mirrored compared to the orientation they have in the sign list. This can be achieved by attaching the code "\" (backslash) to the sign. For instance, the code A1\ gives the sign A1 as its mirror image: . A good example is the use of the signs C12 and C2 in the royal name where C12 is needed in mirrored appearance (code: C12\) in order for the Amun figure to face the Ra figure. Hence, the correct code for the cartouche would be <-C12\-C2-N36:ms*s*s->.

ROTATING SIGNS

Sometimes signs need to be rotated compared to the form they have in the sign list. A well known example is O29 which appears in the sign list horizontally while it is often needed standing vertically as in .

To rotate a sign a special code has to be added to the sign code indicating the kind of rotation to be performed. The kind of rotation is noted either with an "\r" for a rotation counter-clockwise or a "\t" for a rotation clockwise, followed by a number. In total, there are 6 different rotations possible (demonstrated by A1):

A1\r1 gives (rotation -90) A1\t1 gives (rotation +90)

A1\r2 gives (rotation -180) A1\t2 gives (rotation +180)

A1\r3 gives (rotation -270) A1\t3 gives (rotation +270)

FORCED SIGN SCALING

For aestetic reasons it might sometimes be needed to scale a sign otherwise than the size it has by default in the sign list. For instance, certain signs are scaled larger ('fatter') in Ptolemaic texts than in texts from earlier times. A Ptolemaic has a different look from .

One can force a certain scaling upon a sign by attaching to its sign code a "\"-code (backslash) followed by a number indicating the scaling percentage. For instance, A1\80 gives reduced to 80% ; p*t:pt gives , but p\120*t\120:pt gives .

Because the automatic grouping of signs by a computer program may sometimes cause certain signs to be scaled too small or too large within a group, the rescaling option is also useful to correct such anomalies. A good example is kA*kA:kA, which causes WinGlyph to produce the incorrect image . A manual rescaling of the lower sign to 80% (code kA\80) is useful here to obtain the correct image . Please note that some of these scaling anomalies are caused by WinGlyph fitting the groups within a square of limited width (actually 1x1) and that this can be avoided by setting WinGlyph's "Wide groups" option (see below).

DIFFERENT ENCODING FOR LINES AND COLUMNS

There is only a difference between encoding for lines and for columns concerning the use of groups. For instance, the group would in lines be encoded i-A26. In columns, the same encoding would result in . To get the sign A26 places next to the sign i one should use the code i*A26 instead. Likewise, with lines the code anx-n:x (read: followed by the group ) would produce , and with columns it would logically produce . If in columns one would like to have this as , one should rather encode anx*(n:x) instead (read: next to the group ). In consequence, should be encoded i-A26-anx*w:Z2 for lines, but for columns as i*A26-anx*w-Z2 .

CHANGING THE LINE SPACING FOR INDIVIDUAL LINES

Though the line spacing for the complete hieroglyphic text can be set in WinGlyph by one parameter, it might happen that at certain points in the text a different line spacing is needed. One can simply do this by adding a special line spacing code to the end of the preceeding line, following the end-of-line marker "!". This line spacing code consists of the "="-sign followed by number representing the desired line spacing and a closing percentage "%"-sign, for instance "=150%". The line spacing is noted as a percentage of the normal height of a hieroglyphic line. A spacing of 150 means that the amoung of space left between lines will be 150% of a normal line height. For example,

sw-t:Htp-di-!=100%
sw-t:Htp-di-!=200%
sw-t:Htp-di-!

gives:

In this example, the first line is spaced at 100%, meaning that it get no extra space is given below. The next line at 200% receives a full line height space in between. So, as a rule spacing starts at 100%. Any spacing lower than 100% causes the next line to be drawn over the current one. For example, sw-t:Htp-di-!=50% sw-t:Htp-di-! gives: .

CODES FOR TEXT-CRITICAL NOTATIONS

The encoding system knows the following codes for text-critical notations:

Start End Usage

[& &] hieroglyphs added by the publisher (not present in original)

[{ }] hieroglyphs taken out by the publisher (present in original)

[[ ]] hieroglyphs erased by the Egyptian writer

[" "] nowadays lost hieroglyphs that were read by earlier scholars

[' '] hieroglyphs later added by the Egyptian writer

In the hieroglyphic text they appear respectively as , , , and .

These codes are used in between the hieroglyphic codes as if they were signs themselves:

is encoded:

dwA-A4-[[-ra:Z1-C12-]]-[{-R8-}]-[&-m-&]-sbA-A-w-N5

CODES FOR NON-HIEROGLYPHIC TEXT

The encoding system of the Manuel de Codage and consequently WinGlyph also support adding latin and transliteration text in between the hieroglyphic text. By default, WinGlyph assumes that a text is in code hieroglyphic, unless the code is preceeded by a special code indicating a switch to another font. Switching between fonts is done by the code "+" followed by a character identifying the font to be switched to. The following codes and their respective fonts are available:

+s hieroglyphic

+t transliteration font

+l latin font (normal)

+i latin font (italic)

+b latin font (bold)

How these codes are used as switches is demonstrated in the following demonstration code:

+b A demonstration from the grammar by G. Englund +s-!
+s i-r-q:n-A24-n:k-T12-A24-ib:Z1-k-mH:mDAt-k-q:n-i-
  D32-k-m-Xrd-A1*B1:Z2-k-!
+s s-n-D20-A2-k-N42:t-B1-k-mA:ir-A-k-pr:Z1-k-!
+t ir qn.n.k Ar ib.k mH.k qni.k m Xrdw.k zn.k Hmt.k
   
  mA.k pr.k +s-!
+l If you are brave, and control your heart,+s-!
+l you shall embrace your children,
  you shall kiss your wife,+s-!
+l you shall see your home.
+i (Sh.S. 132-134) +s-!!

results in:

A demonstration from the grammar by G. Englund

ir qn.n.k Ar ib.k mH.k qni.k m Xrdw.k zn.k Hmt.k mA.k pr.k
If you are brave, and control your heart,
you shall embrace your children,
you shall kiss your wife,
you shall see your home.

Please note that each line that ends with a non-hieroglyphic font is closed with "+s-!"; before the end-of-line marker "!" is used you first have to switch back to the hieroglyphic font.

Using switches, you can also use different fonts in the same line:

+b 102. +s z:A1*Z1 +t s +l 'man' is common for +b 'someone'

gives:

102. s 'man' is common for 'someone'

ADDING COMMENTARY TO A CODE

You can add commentary by using the code "++". Any text following that code until the next font switch (+s, +t, +l, +i and +b) will be ignored by WinGlyph and consequently not printed. In the example above, the first line set in bold (following +b) could just as easily have been put as commentary by changing the font code "+b" to "++".

ADDING TEXT OVER THE HIEROGLYPHIC LINE

In many text editions it is custom to write over the hieroglyphic line the hieroglyphic line number placed on a vertical line. This can also be done in the encoding system, for which the code "|" (ASCII number 124) is used. All text behind the "|" until the next "-" (dash) will be placed in superscript over a vertical line.

CODES FOR GRAMMATICAL AND LEXICAL USE

The availability of bodies of encoded hieroglyphic texts on computer, with all the signs accounted for in code, offers good prospects for a possible computer-aided grammatical analysis of these texts. Though the grammatical analysis of hieroglyphic texts is beyond the scope of this manual, it is relevant to mention a few codes available in the encoding system for grammatical and lexical use.

Basic requirement for an analysis of the hieroglyphic code is a separation of the words and sentences, as well as notation of the grammatical endings. The following codes are available for this:

word separation: " " (single space) or "_" (single underscore)

sentence separation: " " (double space) or "__" (double underscore)

grammatical ending: "="

A small example:

sw-N42:t_wr&=t:r_<-ti-Z4-i-i->_anx-=ti_r:n:n_
i-t:f-=s_i-i-w-i-A-A52_r:n:n_G14&X1-B1-=s_
V14-w-i-A-B1__+s-!

In this example, the words are separated by a single underscore "_", the sentence is ended by a double underscore and the grammatical endings with "=".


Appendix A: Codes Overview

- sign separator

* sign separator: juxtaposition

: sign separator: subordination

( ) subgroup

! end of line marker

!! end of page marker

.. one-group blank

. half-group blank

$r color change to red

$b color change to black

#1234 sign/group shading (quadrants)

#b shading start (phrase level)

#e shading end (phrase level)

// whole shaded quadrant ()

h/ half horizontal shaded q. ()

v/ half vertical shaded q. ()

/ quarter-group shading ()

\ horizontal sign mirror ( )

\r1 rotation:

\r2 rotation:

\r3 rotation:

\t1 rotation:

\t2 rotation:

\t3 rotation:

[& ... &] added hieroglyph(s)

[{ ... }] superfluous hieroglyph(s)

[[ ... ]] erased hieroglyph(s)

[" ... "] previously readable sign(s)

[' ... '] sign(s) added by scribe

< > cartouche (start ... end)

<1 2> cartouche (start ... end)

<2 1> cartouche (end ... start)

<0 0> c. without start/end

<h1 h1> Hwt-sign start/end type 1

<h2 h2> Hwt-sign start/end type 2

<h3 h3> Hwt-sign start/end type 3

<h0 h0> same as <0 ... 0>

| inserting text

^ ^ running text arrow (<----->)

++ comments line

+s hieroglyphs

+t transliteration

+l latin text

+i latin italics text

+g greek text

+c coptic text

o red dot

O black dot

= grammatical ending indicator


Appendix B: List of sign numbers and phonetic values

A12 = mSa
A15 = xr
A17 = Xrd
A21 = sr
A33 = mniw
A38 = qiz
A47 = iry
A50 = Sps
A51 = Spsi
J1 = x
J11 = mAa
J13 = gs
J13 = im
J15 = M
J17 = sA
J20 = apr
J21 = wDa
J27 = nD
J28 = qd
J30 = Xkr
J5 = Hp
J8 = qn
B3 = msi
C10 = mAat
C11 = HH
C3 = DHwty
C4 = Xnmw
C6 = inpw
C7 = stX
C8 = mnw
D1 = tp
D10 = wDAt
D153 = R
D19 = fnD
D2 = Hr
D21 = r
D21 = rA
D24 = spt
D25 = spty
D27 = mnD
D28 = kA
D3 = Sny
D34 = aHA
D36 = a
D4 = ir
D45 = Dsr
D46 = d
D50 = Dba
D52 = mt
D56 = gH
D56 = gHs
D56 = rd
D56 = sbq
D58 = b
D59 = ab
D60 = wab
D61 = sAH
D9 = rmi
E17 = zAb
E22 = mAi
E23 = l
E23 = rw
E24 = Aby
E34 = wn
E6 = zzmt
F12 = wsr
F13 = wp
F16 = db
F18 = Hw
F18 = bH
F20 = ns
F21 = DrD
F21 = idn
F21 = msDr
F21 = sDm
F22 = kfA
F22 = pH
F23 = xpS
F25 = wHm
F26 = Xn
F29 = sti
F30 = Sd
F31 = ms
F32 = X
F33 = sd
F34 = ib
F35 = nfr
F36 = zmA
F39 = imAx
F4 = HAt
F40 = Aw
F42 = spr
F44 = isw
F44 = iwa
F46 = pXr
F46 = qAb
F5 = SsA
G1 = A
G14 = mwt
G16 = nbty
G17 = m
G18 = mm
G2 = AA
G21 = nH
G22 = Db
G23 = rxyt
G25 = Ax
G27 = dSr
G28 = gm
G29 = bA
G32 = baHi
G35 = aq
G36 = wr
G37 = nDs
G38 = gb
G39 = zA
G4 = tyw
G40 = pA
G41 = xn
G42 = wSA
G43 = w
G44 = ww
G46 = mAw
G47 = TA
G54 = snD
H2 = pq
H2 = wSm
H3 = pAq
H4 = nr
H6 = Sw
I1 = aSA
I10 = D
I11 = DD
I2 = Styw
I3 = mzH
I4 = sbk
I5 = sAq
I6 = km
I8 = Hfn
I9 = f
K1 = in
K3 = ad
K4 = XA
K5 = bz
K6 = nSmt
L1 = xpr
L2 = bit
L7 = srqt
M1 = iAm
M11 = wdn
M12 = xA
M12 = 1000
M13 = wAD
M16 = HA
M17 = i
M18 = ii
M2 = Hn
M20 = sxt
M21 = sm
M22A = nn
M23 = sw
M24 = rsw
M26 = Sma
M29 = nDm
M3 = xt
M30 = bnr
M34 = bdt
M36 = Dr
M4 = rnp
M40 = iz
M6 = tr
M8 = SA
M9 = zSn
N1 = pt
N11 = Abd
N11 = iaH
N14 = dwA
N14 = sbA
N15 = dwAt
N16 = tA
N18 = iw
N20 = wDb
N24 = spAt
N25 = xAst
N26 = Dw
N27 = Axt
N28 = xa
N29 = q
N30 = iAt
N35 = n
N35A = mw
N37 = S
N4 = iAdt
N4 = idt
N40 = Sm
N41 = id
N5 = hrw
N5 = ra
N5 = zw
N8 = Hnmmt
N9 = pzD
O1 = pr
O11 = aH
O15 = wsxt
O18 = kAr
O22 = zH
O25 = txn
O28 = iwn
O29 = aA
O30 = zxnt
O34 = z
O35 = zb
O36 = inb
O38A = qnbt
O4 = h
O42 = Szp
O45 = ipt
O47 = nxn
O49 = niwt
O50 = zp
O51 = Snwt
O6 = Hwt
P4 = wHa
P5 = TAw
P5 = nfw
P6 = aHa
P8 = xrw
Q1 = st
Q2 = wz
Q3 = p
Q6 = qrsw
R1 = xAt
R1 = xAwt
R11 = Dd
R11 = dd
R14 = imnt
R15 = iAb
R16 = wx
R22 = xm
R4 = Htp
R5 = kAp
R5 = kp
R7 = snTr
R8 = nTr
R8A = nTrw
R9 = bd
S1 = HDt
S10 = mDH
S11 = wsx
S12 = nbw
S15 = THn
S15 = tHn
S18 = mnit
S19 = sDAw
S20 = xtm
S22 = sT
S23 = dmD
S24 = Tz
S26 = Sndyt
S27 = mnxt
S29 = s
S3 = N
S3 = dSrt
S30 = sf
S32 = siA
S33 = Tb
S34 = anx
S35 = Swt
S37 = xw
S38 = HqA
S39 = awt
S40 = wAs
S41 = Dam
S42 = abA
S42 = sxm
S42 = xrp
S43 = md
S44 = Ams
S45 = nxxw
S56 = K
S6 = sxmty
S7 = xprS
S8 = Atf
S9 = Swty
T10 = pD
T11 = sXr
T11 = zin
T11 = zwn
T12 = Ai
T12 = Ar
T12 = rwD
T12 = rwd
T13 = rs
T14 = qmA
T17 = wrrt
T18 = Sms
T19 = qs
T21 = wa
T22 = sn
T24 = iH
T25 = DbA
T28 = Xr
T29 = nmt
T3 = HD
T31 = sSm
T34 = nm
T6 = HDD
T9 = pd
U1 = mA
U10 = it
U11 = HqAt
U13 = Sna
U13 = hb
U15 = tm
U16 = biA
U17 = grg
U21 = stp
U22 = mnx
U23 = Ab
U24 = Hmt
U26 = wbA
U28 = DA
U31 = rtH
U32 = zmn
U33 = ti
U34 = xsf
U36 = Hm
U38 = mxAt
U6 = mr
V1 = 100
V12 = arq
V13 = T
V15 = iTi
V19 = TmA
V19 = XAr
V19 = mDt
V2 = sTA
V20 = 10
V20 = mD
V22 = mH
V24 = wD
V26 = aD
V28 = H
V29 = sk
V29 = wAH
V3 = sTAw
V30 = nb
V31 = k
V32 = msn
V33 = sSr
V37 = idr
V4 = wA
V5 = snT
V6 = sS
V7 = Sn
W10 = iab
W11 = g
W11 = nzt
W14 = Hz
W17 = xnt
W19 = mi
W2 = bAs
W22 = Hnqt
W24 = nw
W25 = ini
W3 = Hb
W9 = Xnm
X1 = t
X8 = di
X8 = rdi
Y1 = mDAt
Y3 = mnhd
Y3 = zS
Y5 = mn
Y6 = ibA
Y8 = zSSt
Z11 = imi
Z4 = y
Z7 = W


Appendix C: List of phonetic values and sign numbers

... (in preparation) ...


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